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Een schone doucheafvoer zorgt ervoor dat water snel en effectief afgevoerd kan worden. Verstoppingen en overstromingen worden hierdoor voorkomen. The site had contact with Teotihuacan in the Early Classic and was fortified with a moat and ramparts. Calakmul was one of the two most important Maya cities in the Classic Period, when its rivalry with Tikal dominated the Maya political landscape. Cayo District , Belize. Caracol was an important lowland Maya city, it was already settled in the Late Preclassic but reached its maximum power in the Classic Period when it was first allied with Tikal and later with Calakmul.
It played an important role in the downfall of Tikal in the Early Classic and underwent a dramatic expansion in the Late Classic. It survived the collapse of that kingdom to become one of the last cities to survive in the area and was abandoned at the end of the Classic Period.
Chichen Itza was one of the largest Maya cities and was a major focal point in the northern Maya lowlands from the Late Classic through to the Early Postclassic period and that demonstrated a variety of Maya and non-Maya architectural styles.
Chunchucmil was a large site that reached its apogee during the Late to Terminal Classic. The organisation of the city appears to have differed from that of other Maya sites and appears to have been geared towards a specialised coastal trade in salt. Quintana Roo , Mexico. Coba is large site situated among five small lakes on a dry plain. The city was located in the extreme southeast of the Mesoamerican cultural region, on the frontier with the Isthmo-Colombian cultural region, and was almost surrounded by non-Maya peoples.
The city is best known for its elaborate sculptural style. It broke away from Tikal and became a vassal of Calakmul. It was a predator state from the beginning and the city gives an important glimpse into the great rivalries and political strife that characterised the Late Classic. Much of the history of Dos Pilas can now be reconstructed, with a level of detail that is almost unparalleled in the Maya area. Chimaltenango Department , Guatemala.
Although short-lived, Iximche was the capital of the Kaqchikel highland kingdom at the time of the Spanish conquest of Guatemala and became the base of operations for the conquest of the highlands and Pacific coast until Spanish demands for tribute caused the Kaqchikels to break off their alliance and rebel. Ixkun is a large site containing many unrestored mounds and ruins and is the best known archaeological site within the municipality of Dolores.
Guatemala Department , Guatemala. Kaminaljuyu was founded in the Middle Preclassic and emerged as an important city in the Late Preclassic and dominated the entire Maya Highlands. It declined at the end of the Preclassic and was taken over by a new Maya group in the Early Classic with strong contacts with central Mexico. Occupation at Kaminaljuyu extended into the Late Classic.
Mayapan was an important fortified city with a densely occupied area within the city walls. The principal pyramid at Mayapan was modelled after the main pyramid at Chichen Itza.
El Mirador was an enormous Late Preclassic city although construction apparently began in the Middle Preclassic and some level of occupation continued into the Classic Period. The city included some very large triadic pyramids and covered an area similar to that of Classic Period Tikal. The hieroglyphic texts from the site cover almost the whole Classic Period from to AD, although the site was inhabited since the Preclassic.
The city is linked to neighbouring El Mirador by a Late Preclassic causeway. Nakbe appears to possess the earliest examples of Maya masonry architecture and of sacbe causeways. Naranjo was the capital of a kingdom from the Early Classic through to the Late Classic and formed an important link in the trade routes running from the great city of Tikal to the Caribbean Sea. The city became a vassal of Tikal's great rival Calakmul and was involved in a series of devastating wars.
Oxkintok was one of the first Maya states to develop in the northern lowlands, undergoing a process of rapid development in the Early Classic Period that gave rise to an important capital with inscribed stone monuments.
Palenque is located in the foothills of the Chiapas highlands. The site is best known for the Temple of the Inscriptions , the mortuary shrine containing the tomb of king K'inich Janaab' Pakal. El Peru also known as Waka'.
Piedras Negras was the largest city in the region of the Usumacinta River and is known for its excellent quality Late Classic sculpted monuments. These well preserved inscriptions provided the first evidence that Maya texts described historical events. Izabal Department , Guatemala. San Bartolo is a remote site in the Guatemalan rainforest and was only discovered in Most of the structures at the site date to the Late Preclassic and overlie older Middle Preclassic architecture, although the city was reoccupied in the Late Classic.
San Bartolo possesses one of the most important Preclassic murals yet found. Tikal was founded in the Late Preclassic but reached its greatest power in the Late Classic, when most of its great temples were constructed. A long-running rivalry between Tikal and Calakmul began in the 6th century, with each of the two cities forming its own network of mutually hostile alliances arrayed against each other in what has been likened to a long-running war between two Maya superpowers.
Tulum is a Late Postclassic site situated on cliffs overlooking the Caribbean Sea and was probably occupied at the time of the Spanish Conquest. It is a small site with architecture in a style similar to that at the bigger cities of Chichen Itza and Mayapan.
In the Late Classic Period Yaxchilan was one of the most powerful Maya cities along the course of the Usumacinta, with Piedras Negras as its major rival. It dominated such smaller sites as Bonampak. Yaxha was a large city located upon the north shore of the lake of the same name.
The city reached its maximum power in the Early Classic, when it was one of the largest capital cities in the Maya region; it was apparently allied with Tikal at that time. By the Late Classic its power had waned, perhaps linked to defeat by Calakmul or its allies. Retalhuleu Department , Guatemala . Campeche , Mexico .
Cayo District , Belize . To non-believers, this sounds like an ad hoc hypothesis. According to microchemist Dr. The suggestion that the Chambery fire changed the date of the cloth is ludicrous. Samples for C-dating are routinely and completely burned to CO 2 as part of a well-tested purification procedure. The suggestions that modern biological contaminants were sufficient to modernize the date are also ridiculous. A weight of 20th century carbon equaling nearly two times the weight of the Shroud carbon itself would be required to change a 1st century date to the 14th century see Carbon 14 graph.
Besides this, the linen cloth samples were very carefully cleaned before analysis at each of the C-dating laboratories. It may interest skeptics to know that many people of faith believe that there is scientific evidence which supports their belief in the shroud's authenticity. Of course, the evidence is limited almost exclusively to pointing out facts that would be true if the shroud were authentic.
For example, it is claimed to be the negative image of a crucifixion victim. It is claimed to be the image of a man brutally beaten in a way which corresponds to the way Jesus is thought to have been treated. It is also claimed that the image is not a painting but a miraculously transposed image.
Skeptics believe that the shroud of Turin is just another religious relic invented to beef up the pilgrimage business or impress infidels.
Another equally famous painting, also claimed to have miraculously appeared on a cloth, cropped up in Mexico in the 16th century, "Our Lady of Guadalupe.
The author claims that historical, iconographic, pathological, physical, and chemical evidence points to its inauthenticity.
The shroud is a 14th century painting, not a year-old cloth with Jesus's image. McCrone's theory is that "a male model was daubed with paint and wrapped in the sheet to create the shadowy figure of Jesus.
Vermilion paint, made from mercuric sulphide, was then splashed onto the image's wrists, feet and body to represent blood. McCrone analyzed the shroud and found traces of chemicals that were used in "two common artist's pigments of the 14th century, red ochre and vermilion, with a collagen gelatin tempera binder" McCrone The shroud, however, has many defenders who believe they have demonstrated that the cloth is not a forgery, dates from the time of Jesus, is of miraculous origin, etc.
It is claimed that there is type AB blood on the shroud. Blood has not been identified on the shroud directly, but it has been identified on sticky tape that was used to lift fibrils from the shroud.
Dried, aged blood is black. The stains on the shroud are red. Forensic tests on the red stuff have identified it as red ocher and vermilion tempera paint. Other tests by Adler and Heller have identified it as blood. It could be the blood of someone wrapped in the shroud, or the blood of the creator of the shroud, or of anyone who has ever handled the shroud, or of anyone who handled the sticky tape.
But even if there were blood on the shroud, that would have no bearing on the age of the shroud or on its authenticity. It is claimed that the cloth has some pollen grains and images on it that are of plants found only in the Dead Sea region of Israel. Avinoam Danin , a botanist from Hebrew University of Jerusalem claims he has identified pollen from the tumbleweed Gundelia tournefortii and a bean caper on the shroud.
He claims this combination is found only around Jerusalem. Some believers think the crown of thorns was made of this type of tumbleweed. However, Danin did not examine the shroud itself. His sample of pollen grains originated with Max Frei , who tape-lifted pollen grain samples from the shroud.
Frei's pollen grains have been controversial from the beginning. Frei, who once pronounced the forged "Hitler Diaries" to be genuine, probably introduced the pollen grains himself or was duped and innocently picked up pollen grains another pious fraud had introduced Nickell.
Danin and his colleague Uri Baruch also claim that they found impressions of flowers on the shroud and that those flowers could only come from Israel. However, the floral images they see are hidden in mottled stains much the way the image of Jesus is hidden in a tortilla or the image of Mary is hidden in the bark of a tree.
The first to see flowers in the stains was a psychiatrist, who was probably an expert at seeing personality traits in inkblots Nickell, Danin notes that another relic believed to be the burial face cloth of Jesus the Sudarium of Oviedo in Spain contains the same two types of pollen grains as the Shroud and also is stained with type AB blood.
Since the Sudarium is believed to have existed before the 8th century, according to Danin, there is "clear evidence that the shroud originated before the eighth century.
It is said to have been in the chest when it was opened in But, since there is no blood on the shroud of Turin and there is no good reason to accept Danin's assumption that the pollen grains were on the Shroud from its origin, this argument is spurious. In any case, the fact that pollen grains found near the Dead Sea or Jerusalem were on the shroud means little. Even if the pollen grains weren't introduced by some pious fraud, they could have been carried to the shroud by anyone who handled it.
In short, the pollen grains could have originated in Jerusalem at any time before or after the appearance of the shroud in Italy.